(13) Operation Bodenplatte

(13) Operation Bodenplatte

Color profiles: Janusz Światłoń, Arkadiusz Wróbe, captions: Marek J. Murawski, Tomasz Szlagor
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The Luftwaffe
Towards the end of 1944 Adolf Hitler undertook his last attempt to change the course of the war, launching a counteroffensive in the Ardennes. The German land forces were to enjoy a powerful air support. At dawn of 1st January 1945 the Luftwaffe carried out a surprise attack against allied tactical air force units stationed at advanced airfields in western Europe. The operation code-named ‘Bodenplatte’ saw involvement of over 900 German aircraft. But numbers could not make up of the inexperience of most pilots, who either had difficulty locating their assigned targets or were not trained to make a successful strafing attack. Worse still, ill-informed Flak gunners exacted a heavy toll on German fighters passing above them. The Allies’ overall losses amounted to some 350 aircraft destroyed and a further 220 damaged. The cost of the operation for the Luftwaffe was 280 aircraft and 214 pilots. It was a mortal blow for the German air force, which failed to recuperate from such crippling losses before the cessation of hostilities.
The German fighters which participated in the Operation Bodenplatte were camouflaged in painting schemes complying with a document known as Sammelmitteilung No 2, issued by the OKL (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe) to aircraft factories and repair centres on 15th August 1944. The document included an order to discontinue the use of RLM 74 Graugrün. That paint, once its stocks would have been used up, was to be replaced by a new colour designated RLM 83 Dunkelgrün (Dark Green). The latter was a dark tinge of green, which offered a sharper contrast than the hitherto used RLM 74. With some manufacturers, however, the ‘old’ stocked paint continued to be in use for months to follow.
Some aircraft still carried the older camouflage patterns specified in the November 1941 issue of Luftwaffen Dienstvorschrift (L.Dv.) 521/1. These were combinations of RLM 74 Graugrün (Grey-Green), RLM 75 Grauviolett (Grey-Violet) and RLM 76 Lichtblau (Light Blue). The two shades of grey provided segmented camouflage for wings, tailplanes and fuselage decking, whilst the light RLM 76 covered undersurfaces, as well as fuselage and tailfin sides. The prescribed pattern of segments was detailed in factory instructions. This basic camouflage was supplemented by mottling fuselage and tailfin sides with RLM 74 Graugrün (Grey-Green), RLM 75 Grauviolett (Grey-Violet) and RLM 02 Grau (Grey). Those three colours were used all together or in combinations of two at a time. At times RLM 74 Graugrün was replaced by RLM 70 Schwarzgrün, which was also used for painting propeller blades and spinners. This painting scheme can be found on Messerschmitt Bf 109 Gs, Focke-Wulf Fw 190 As and early Ds, as well as on Messerschmitt Me 262s of early production runs.
The closing period of war (starting with late 1944), during which the Germans struggled with deteriorating supply and economic conditions, witnessed a great variety of individual camouflage styles. Some Messerschmitt Bf 109 Gs produced by the Erla plant were painted only with a single colour, RLM 83 Dunkelgrün or RLM 81 Braunviolett (Brown-Violet), on the sides and upper surfaces.
Messerschmitt Bf 109 K-4s were as a rule camouflaged in RLM 81 Braunviolett and RLM 82 Hellgrün on the upper surfaces, and RLM 76 Lichtblau on fuselage sides and bottom surfaces. A similar camouflage was applied to Focke-Wulf Fw 190 A-8s and A-9s as well as F-8s. Most Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Ds substantially varied in undersurface camouflaging. Depending on a manufacturer, there were at least 15 variations, ranging from an overall coat of RLM 76 Lichtblau, through partial natural metal finish in the centre section, to covering front section with RLM 81 Braunviolett.
National insignia were painted in RLM 21 Weiß (White) and RLM 22 Schwarz (Black). Balkenkreuze on the upper wings and fuselage sides were usually applied in a simplified, outline style. The outlines were in white, and in case of fuselage crosses they were often filled in with RLM 74 Graugrün, or later with RLM 83 Dunkelgrün.

The Allies
The New Year’s attack was directed against a formidable contingent of the combined RAF and USAAF tactical air forces – mostly fighters and fighter-bombers. Stationed at 11 forward airfields in Belgium, five in Netherlands and one in France were units of British 2nd TAF and American 9th AF. The former included No 83 Group with eight Wings (which comprised 14 squadrons of Spitfires, 11 of Typhoons and five of Tempests), and No 84 Group with six Wings (with a further 22 squadrons on strength, mostly Spitfires and Typhoons). There was also No 2 Group with one Wing of Mitchell medium bombers and a Recce Wing flying Spitfires, Mosquitos, and Wellingtons. The Americans had ten Fighter Groups (nine of P-47 Thunderbolts, and one of P-51 Mustangs, the latter on detached service from 8th AF) and one Recce Group flying F-5 Lightnings.

The RAF fighters all used the factory-applied temperate scheme of Dark Green and Ocean Grey topsides over Medium Sea Grey. Many RAF and USAAF aircraft alike retained partial black & white ‘invasion stripes’ under rear fuselage for recognition purposes. The USAAF aircraft sported natural metal finish (Olive Drab camouflage having been discontinued in October 1943). Unlike their British allies, the Americans commonly used colour unit markings and freely decorated their aircraft with personal emblems and names. 352nd Fighter Group painted the engine cowlings of their Mustangs blue. This highly successful fighter outfit had been rushed from England to the continent to help regain air superiority over the Ardennes area. On the day of the German air attack only one component squadron of the group – 487th FS – got involved in the air battle after its base at Asch (code-named Y-29) in Belgium had come under attack. Taking off under fire and fighting in the face of three to one odds, the 487th nevertheless scored big, racking up 24 ‘kills’ for no losses of their own. For their performance the squadron received the Distinguished Unit Citation. Their battle duly became known as ‘The Legend of Y-29’.
The reader will notice that in two instances the shade of the blue under aircraft names is lighter. As Sam Sox Jr of 352nd Fighter Group Association explained to the authors:
“The ‘name’ panels for Moonbeam and Eleen were medium blue. The medium blue had gotten some lighter since blues during the ‘40s was very prone to oxidizing. When all 352nd Mustangs were repainted in September of ‘44 to the darker blue, the RAF color Deep Sky Blue, any Mustang which had been previously painted the medium retained the original name plates rather then have the squadron painter, Sgt. Sam Perry, repaint them, hence the lighter back ground of the name panels. Petie 3rd was received by Meyer after mid-September so it had never been painted the medium blue and the name panel and aircraft was Deep Sky Blue”.

 

Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-14, W.Nr. 462 789, marked ‘Blue 4’ 12./JG 53; Kirrlach, 1st January 1945.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-14, W.Nr. 784 993, marked ‘White 13’ of 13./JG 53, flown by Uffz. Herbert Maxis; Stuttgart-Echterdingen, 1st January 1945.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 K-4, W.Nr. 330 230, marked ‘White 17’ of 9./JG 77, flown by Uffz. Heinrich Munninger of 10./JG 77; Düsseldorf-Lohausen, 1st January 1945.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 A-8, W.Nr. 739 269, marked ‘Red 1’ of 4./JG 1, flown by Uffz. Alfred Fritzsche; Twente, 1st January 1945.

Fw 190 A-8/R2 W.Nr. 682 296, marked ‘Yellow 2’ of 7(Sturm)./JG 4, flown by Fw. Erich Güldenpfennig; Babenhausen, 1st January 1945.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 D-9, W.Nr. 210 079, marked ‘Black 12’ of 10./JG 54, flown by Lt. Theo Nibel; Varrelbusch, 1st January 1945.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 D-9, W.Nr. 210 102, marked ‘White 3’ of 9./JG 54, flown by Fw. Paul Drutschmann; Varrelbusch, 1st January 1945.

Spitfire LF Mk IX (MK346) coded “ZF-T” and flown by Flg/Off Tadeusz Szlenkier of the Polish No 308 Sqn. Southwest of Ghent Szlenkier shot down a Fw 190, most probably flown by Uffz. Gerhard Behrens of 8./JG 1 (the German pilot was killed).

Tempest Mk V (EJ750), flown by W/Cdr John B. Wray, the CO of No 122 Fighter Wing (the aircraft carries his initials).

Typhoon Mk IB (JR401) coded “5V-P” of No 439 Sqn RAF; Eindhoven (B-78). In a clash with German fighters of JG 3 and JG 6 in the area of Deurne, Netherlands, the squadron’s pilots scored three confirmed and one probable victories.

P-47D-30-RE Thunderbolt La Mort (s/n 44-20545) marked “B2-M” and flown by 2/Lt. Melvin R. Paisley of 390th FS / 366th FG. Paisley’s squadron, stationed at Asch (Y-29), managed to scramble just in time to beat off the first wave of attackers from JG 11.

P-47D-28-RA Thunderbolt Black Panther (s/n 42-28794) marked “4K-Y” and flown by Lt. Robert F. “Speedy” Bealle of 506th FS / 404th FG.

P-51D-15-NA Mustang Petie 3rd (s/n 44-15041) marked “HO-M”, flown by Lt.Col. John C. Meyer, the CO of 487th FS, and later (from November 1944) Deputy CO of 352nd FG.

P-51D-15-NA Mustang Eleen and Jerry (s/n 44-15629) marked “HO-R” and flown by Lt. Alden P. Rigby of 487th FS. The aircraft was named after the pilot’s wife and son.

P-51D-10-NA Moonbeam McSwine (s/n 44-14237) marked “HO-W” and flown by Capt. William T. Whisner of 487th FS. Whisner was one of the ‘old hands’ in 352nd FG, who by 1st January 1945 had racked up 11.5 air victories.


 

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TC13-Operation-Bodenplatte

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