Junkers Ju 87 D/G vol. I


Lubrication system included an oil radiator mounted in the lower part of the engine cowling and connected to the compressor intercooler. The main oil tank had a capacity of 55 l, although in practice only 35 l was used. The tank was mounted in the forward, lower section of the fuselage, just behind the firewall. Two additional 31 l tanks were placed in the upper part of the fuselage behind the firewall and one more 27 l tank was placed directly above the engine. Oil circulation was maintained by an engine-driven, geared oil pump. Three different types of oil were used for lubrication: Stanavo 100, Aero-Shell Mittel or Intava-Rotring.

The fuel system consisted of four self-sealing wing tanks. A pair of 260 l tanks were built into the wing’s center section, while the outboard sections of the wing housed two 160 l tanks. Each tank had to be fuelled separately. The aircraft’s fuel installation had a provision for two additional 300 l drop tanks under the wings. In operational environment the drop tanks were filled with 295 l of fuel each. The system featured an engine driven fuel pump and two auxiliary KNP 16A electric pumps in the main fuel tanks. The fuel used was B4 type 87 octane ethyl gasoline. A small tank of ether gasoline used in cold engine starts was placed in the forward section of the fuselage. Fuel consumption at sea level was 310 l per hour, 305 l per hour at 2,500 m and 320 l per hour at 5,000 m. Fuel load of 760 l resulted in flight endurance of 2 hrs. 15 min. The use of drop tanks increased total fuel capacity to 1,370 l and extended the aircraft’s endurance to over 4 hours.
The machine featured a 24 V electrical system powered by a 2,000 W Bosch engine-driven generator and a 7.5 Ah lead-acid battery. The system powered all radio equipment, as well as bomb sight and cockpit illumination, instrument panel lights, navigation lights and an external flood light mounted between ribs Id and Iia of the port wing. The system was protected by a set of circuit breakers on a control panel placed on the right side of the front cockpit.

 Close up of wheel’s spats. [Visualisation 3d Marek Ryś]

 

Oxygen system consisted of a set of two breathing regulators for the crew, which provided proper breathing mixture depending on the altitude. Oxygen was fed from 18 spherical tanks with separate regulators, which were grouped into six sets of three tanks. Total system pressure was 15 Mpa and all oxygen tanks were refilled through a single-point input valve under the wing.
Radio equipment consisted of a two-way FuG VIIa communication unit operating at frequencies between 2,500 and 3,750 kHz mounted in the rear cockpit. FuG VIIa radio set included an S6b transmitter, an E5a receiver and a U4b 24 power inverter. A copper wire antenna ran from a mast on the canopy to the top of the vertical fin. An EiV 1a intercom provided internal communication between crew stations. The aircraft was also equipped with an FuG 25 IFF unit with its dedicated blade antenna under the fuselage and a Peil G IV, V or VI radio ranging device with a rotating PRE 4 goniometric antenna in a Plexiglas-covered dorsal compartment behind the rear cockpit.
The cockpit was fitted with a set of flight and engine control instruments, as well as aircraft systems controls placed on the front and side instrument panels. A Walther signal gun was stowed on the left side of the cockpit, under the front section of the canopy.
One of the most notorious elements of the Ju 87 D-1 optional equipment were two (sometimes one) externally mounted sirens, which emitted a horrifying wail during dives. The sirens were attached to the upper part of the main landing gear fairings and were powered by ram-air spinners. The spinners were electro-pneumatically actuated and stopped. The spinners’ drag decreased the aircraft’s airspeed in level flight, so in frontline use the sirens were often left behind. Tropical variants, designated Ju 87 D-1/trop, were equipped with sand filters, additional wing machine gun seals and sported dessert survival kits, similar to kits carried by Ju 87 R-2/trop models. In addition, the top part of the canopy was equipped with sun shades.
Offensive armament consisted of a pair of 7.92 mm Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 17 machine guns mounted in bays near the outboard wing sections. The aircraft carried a supply of 1,000 rounds of ammunition per gun. An MG 17 weighed in at 10.2 kg, had a theoretical rate of fire of 1,200 rounds per minute and muzzle velocity of 755 m/sec. The guns were charged by an electro-pneumatic system. 15 Mpa constant system pressure was provided by compressed air from a set of 1 liter tanks. Gun aiming was aided by a Revi C/12 D reflex sight illuminated by a 15 W bulb.
Offensive armament could be augmented by six MG 81 Z machine guns carried in two WB 81 A or WB 81 B pods (WB – Waffenbehälter)1 mounted on the underwing weapons stations. Each pod was designed to carry 1,500 rounds of ammunition. WB 81 As had a 15 degree downward muzzle deflection, while WB 81 Bs featured neutral gun deflection. Each pod weighed 140 kg without ammunition and 180 kg with a full supply of ammunition. In the Luftwaffe lingo the pods were called Gießkanne, or “watering cans”.